Istruzione e formazione

Education and training

Basic concepts

Education, training and the level of competences affect the well-being of individuals and open up opportunities otherwise precluded. Education does not only have an intrinsic value but it directly affects the well-being of people. People with higher education level have higher standards of living and more possibilities to find work, they live longer and better because they have healthier lifestyles and more opportunities to find jobs in a less risky. Furthermore, higher levels of education and training are related to higher levels of access and enjoyment of goods and cultural services, and to an active participation in the production process in the cultural and creative sectors.

Dimensions considered to represent the domain

The domain takes into account four dimensions:

  1. Formal education. Undertaken in schools and universities, it is the main pillar of competences that people acquire during lifetime. The population’s educational level can be considered as a proxy of the stock of human capital available in a country.
  2. Long life learning. People continue to acquire competences throughout lifetime, especially at work but also through the activities of their free time. The participation of adults to training activities is an important element in improving their competences.
  3. Levels of competences. Education and training are indicators of the potential in terms of human capital but they do not give indications on the real competences of the population; for this reason it is necessary to measure the competences actually acquired and their impact on individual well-being.
  4. Cultural participation. It represents an important source of “random learning” placing itself in a continuum with education and training, and having a direct and positive effect on life satisfaction.

List of indicators

  1. Participation in early childhood education: Percentage of children aged 4-5 years participating in pre-primary education on total children aged 4-5 years.
  2. People with at least upper secondary education: Percentage of people aged 25-64 years having completed at least upper secondary education (ISCED level not below 3a, 3b or 3c) on total people aged 25-64 years.
  3. People with tertiary education: Percentage of people aged 30-34 years having completed tertiary education (ISCED 5 or 6) on total people aged 30-34 years.
  4. Enrolment rate at university: Percentage of new-graduates from secondary education who enroll for the first time at university in the same year they graduate from secondary education (cohort-specific rate).
  5. New-graduates from secondary education who enroll in other forms of tertiary education or foreign universities are not included.
  6. Early leavers from education and training: Percentage of people aged 18-24 years who have achieved only lower secondary (ISCED 2) and are not included in a training program on total people aged 18-24 years.
  7. Young not in education, employment, or training (NEET): Percentage of people aged 15-29 years that are not in education, employment, or training on total people aged 15-29 years.
  8. Participation in long-life learning: Percentage of people aged 25-64 years participating in formal or non-formal education on total people aged 25-64 years.
  9. Level of literacy: Scores obtained in the tests of functional literacy skills of students in the 2nd class of upper secondary education.
  10. Level of numeracy: Scores obtained in the tests of numeracy skills of students in the II classes of upper secondary education.
  11. People with high level of ICT competencies: Percentage of people aged 16 years and over who can perform at least 5 over the 6 listed operations on the computer on total people aged 16 years and over.
  12. Cultural participation: Percentage of people aged 6 years and over who have carried out 3 or more activities in the 12 months before the interview on total people aged 6 years and over. The activities considered are: go to the cinema at least four times, at least once to the theatre, exhibitions and museums, archaeological sites, monuments, concerts of classical music, opera, concerts of other kind of music; read the newspaper at least three times per week, read at least four books.