Italiano
Lavoro e conciliazione tempi di vita

Work and life balance

Basic concepts

A job well paid, reasonably secure and corresponding to competences, is a universal aspiration of people and contributes significantly to their wellbeing. It is well known that the absence of a "good job" has a negative impact on the level of wellbeing; nevertheless a bad distribution of work commitments which hamper the balance between working time and social and family life can have a similar negative impact. The sub-dimensions and the indicators chosen to represent this domain are meant to follow this approach, illustrating the contribution that the employment status may give to wellbeing in the Italian society.

Dimensions considered to represent the domain

Moving from the quantitative perspective of labor participation up to the subjective perspective of job satisfaction, the domain is articulated in five sub-dimensions:

  1. Participation and social inclusion. It detects the quantitative aspect of work participation. It allows to highlight situations at higher risk of poverty and social exclusion, underlining the socio-economic effects of a low-intensity occupation.
  2. Work quality (stability, salary, competences and work safety). The second dimension focuses attention on employment characteristics in terms of regulatory and de facto stability, salary, competences and work safety. The quality of employment is not homogeneous: there are good and bad jobs.
  3. Work and life balance. This dimension is aimed at investigating the management of work time and life time in relation to family commitments. The compatibility between employment of women and their reproductive function is a crucial goal of labour policies. The quality of employment in a country is also measured on the possibility that women with children are able to reconcile paid work and family care.
  4. Company life. Social participation of workers in company activities has positive effects on individual wellbeing and increases productivity at work.
  5. Uncertainty of employment and job satisfaction. The last dimension intends to capture the subjective aspects of wellbeing at work, investigating perceived insecurity in the loss of employment and job satisfaction. Several studies adopted job satisfaction as a reasonable proxy for estimating the overall quality of work perceived by workers. According to these studies, job satisfaction is a good predictor of some behaviors of workers: from resignation, to absenteeism, to productivity.

List of indicators

  1. Employment rate of people 20-64 years old: Percentage of employed people aged 20-64 on total population aged 20-64.
  2. Non-participation rate: Percentage of unemployed people aged 15-74 plus part of the potential labor force aged 15-74 (persons who are inactive not having looked for a job in the past 4 weeks but willing to work) on total labor force aged 15-74 plus part of the potential labor force aged 15-74 (persons who are inactive not having looked for a job in the past 4 weeks but willing to work).
  3. Transition rate (12 months time-distance) from non-standard to standard employment: Percentage of people employed in non-standard jobs at the time t0 (employees with temporary jobs + term-contract workers + project worker + occasional hired workers + single customer self-employed without employees) which have a standard job (permanent employees + self-employed with employees + no single customer self-employed without employees) a year later on total people employed in non-standard jobs at the time t0.
  4. Share of employed persons with temporary jobs for at least 5 years: Percentage of temporary employees and term-contract workers who began their current job at least 5 years prior to interview on total temporary employees and term-contract workers.
  5. Share of employees with below 2/3 of median hourly earnings: Percentage of employees with an hourly wage of less than 2/3 of the median on total number of employees.
  6. Share of over-qualified employed persons Percentage of people employed with a qualification higher than the qualification held by the majority of people who exercise the same profession on total employed people.
  7. Incidence rate of fatal occupational injuries or injuries leading to permanent disability: Proportion of fatal occupational injuries or injuries leading to permanent disability on total people employed (excluding the armed forces) per 10,000.
  8. Share of employed persons not in regular occupation: Employees who do not comply with work, fiscal and pension laws / total employees.
  9. Ratio of employment rate for women 25-49 years with children under compulsory school age to the employment rate of women 25-49 years without children: Employment rate of women aged 25-49 with at least one children under compulsory school age / Employment rate of women aged 25-49 without children.
  10. Share of population aged 15-64 years that work over 60 hours per week (including paid work and household work): Population aged 15-64 years that work over 60 hours per week of paid work and household work / population aged 15-64 years.
  11. Share of household work time carried out by women in a couple on the total of the household work time: Household work time carried out by women / household work time carried out by both partner * 100.
  12. Share of employed persons who feel satisfied with their work: The indicator is built as the average level of satisfaction (eg, using a scale from 0 to 10) in more than one dimension: the type of work, earnings, prospects of career, relations with others, working conditions and environment, reconciliation with lifetimes.
  13. Share of employed persons who feel their work unsecure: Employed persons who, in the following 6 months, consider it is likely they lose their job and it is not at all or a little likely that they find another similar job / Total employed persons * 100
  14. Involuntary part-time: People employed in a part time job because they did not find a full time job on total employed people